Here are the complete notes for the chapter on Living World, part of the NEET biology syllabus. The Important Notes for NEET Biology The Living World is helpful for candidates preparing for their NEET examinations to immediately brush through the topics for their last-minute revision before the exam.
The living world
For any organism to survive and live, there are some features that it needs to possess. These are growth, reproduction, tactile sensation, the ability to sense the environment around, self-organisation, establishment, and mortality.
All of these processes occur in a protoplasm, which is why Huxley called it the physical basis of all life on earth. This exhibits all life’s properties, and thus it is called the living matter.
Diversity in the living world is biodiversity. It refers to the varied types and numbers of organisms that are found on the earth. Nomenclature is the process that renders a scientific name to any organism. The ICZN and ICBN are the organisations that are appointed to allot scientific names to both plants and animals.
The scientific name has two segments. These are generic and specific epithets. Binomial nomenclature is the process of offering names with two components. Carolus Linnaeus gave this name. For example, when you say homo sapiens, homo is a generic name, and the sapien is specific to an epithet.
Here are the rules of nomenclature. Each of the names has two words. One is the genus, and the other is the specific epithet. When it is expressed, it should be underlined separately, and when you write it manually, this should be in italics.
The names need to be in Latin or should be Latinized. The general name starts with an upper case, and the specific name starts with a lower case.
- Classification is the process of assigning the creature a specific group or class considering its defining characteristics. These are groups referred to as taxa.
- Taxonomy is the process of the identification, organisation, and nomenclature of the organisation of life forms. This is done by considering the inner and outer cell structure as well as advancement process and biological data.
- Investigating the forms of life in association to its nomenclature, identification, evolutionary correspondence, and arrangement is called systematics.
The categories of taxonomy
Taxonomy refers to the rank or the level in any hierarchical arrangement in its ascending order. Here are the seven categories listed below.
- The kingdom is the different phyla of the animals and the different divisions of plants.
- Division or phylum relates to the classes. It is divided into plants and phylum in the animals.
- Many orders that are related to each other are incorporated in a class.
- The order relates to a few families that are related.
- Family is an assembly of the related genre.
- Genus is the gathering of the animal categories that are related and have the same characteristics.
- Species are the essential unit in any classification and refer to the individuals that belong to any animal group related firmly with each other. These are obtained from a typical ancestor, and they can produce fertile offspring.
The taxonomy aids
The taxonomic aids or the taxonomic guide is the technique to store information and procedure used to identify and classify the entities.
The herbarium is the place to store the samples of assembled plants. These are dried and squeezed samples that have been protected on the sheets. Post this; these are systematically ordered as per the classification system that is accepted universally.
The herbarium sheet will have marks that denote the scientific name, the gathering spot, date, the collectors’ name, the plant’s family, and many more details concerning the plants’ sample.
A museum is a repository with an assembly of different animals and plant samples preserved to get information and study them. The entities here are kept as a dry sample or have an additive arrangement. The museum will also have a skeleton and animal accumulation.
- Zoological Park
Zoological parks are where animals are ensured with a secured natural condition. The park gives one a great chance to understand the sustenance inclination and behavioural aspects of these animals.
- Botanical Garden
The botanical garden is where there is an accumulation of the living species of plants used as a source of information. Every plant comes with a label that exhibits its family and scientific name.
Classification of taxonomy
The key here is used to identify plants and animals in light of their similarities and dissimilarities. Turrill classified taxonomy into three different types.
- Alpha taxonomy collects the organism and identifies them based on their field, gross morphology, and herbarium studies. It helps in compiling the flora and monographs and lets one identify the plants.
- Beta taxonomy deals with collecting and then identifying organisms based on their morphology and their genetic, anatomy phycology, and cytology evidence.
- Omega taxonomy deals with all kinds of microscopic observations and the biochemical evidence equal to the new systematics based on the phonetic classification.
Some famous names in the field
- Carolus Linnaeus is honoured as the father of taxonomy.
- A.P. de Candolle is a French botanist. He was the one who coined the word taxonomy.
- Dobzhansky and Mayr came with the species’ biological concepts.
- H Santapau is the father of Indian taxonomy.
- William Roxburgh is the father of Indian herbaria and Indian botany
- Lamarck came up with the concept that stated that the species is dynamic as well as mutable.
The Living World is a crucial chapter in the NEET syllabus. The chapter teaches the fundamental concept of the world of living organisms. It is thus essential to be thorough on this topic from the start.
The note helps you grasp the chapter’s important concepts that let you move to the broader concepts with ease. These notes are handy and help to boost your revision schedule to get amazing results in your examination.